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iTEM Solution EFTEM - Getting the most out of your energy filtered TEM
Key features
iTEM Solution EFTEM
  • Integrated EELS atlas containing reference spectra
  • Remote control of EFTEM and periphery devices
  • Generating and processing ESI element maps and EELS spectra
  • Numerous options of energy and intensity calibration
Summary
iTEM Solution EFTEM offers acquisition, processing and evaluation routines for all prevailing methods of energy-filtered electron microscopy. This applies to the Image EELS and ESI methods, both being methods mainly used for analysis and visualization of even the lowest levels of element concentration. The software offers fast and effortless generation of highly resolved element diffraction maps accompanied by extensive information on the chemical composition of the structure. Parallel and serial EELS spectra can also be acquired using iTEM Solution EFTEM. When conducting more extensive analysis, spectra can be quantified within the software, and specimen thickness can be determined right away. iTEM Solution EFTEM also offers an impressive variety of spectra-processing functions. This solution includes an EELS atlas with a wide range of reference spectra as well as automatic generation of spectral information.
Description Specifications
The iTEM Solution EFTEM combines the functionality of a general image processing system with methods and techniques specifically developed for energy filtered transmission electron microscopy.
The iTEM solution EFTEM offers tools for acquisition, analysis, management and display of energy loss image series.
ESI (Electron Spectroscopy Imaging)
The ESI mode is primarily used for investigating radiosensitive specimens as this approach requires just a few images for generating an element diffraction map – depending on the exact method used. In the ESI mode, the iTEM Solution EFTEM manages and coordinates automatic acquisition, calculation, and subsequent presentation of results. Image acquisition can be greatly simplified using the various options. The number of images to be acquired can be defined interactively and easily in the acquisition dialog in accordance with the respective energy loss.
In order to minimize the possibility of error when defining the energy loss/range, the iTEM Solution EFTEM uses a built-in EELS Atlas, a library containing all known energy windows, ionization edges and reference spectra. For instance, the EELS Atlas can be used to set optimal parameters for acquiring the required image series. This facilitates adding reference spectra during acquisition in order to define the ideal energy loss. After defining these parameters, image acquisition is automatic. A drift correction, which works automatically or manually, helps to align images with one another as needed. R value mapping offers various methods for adjusting the background. Evaluation in the ESI mode is done via today's prevailing methods: eg, 2, 3 and multi-window method, the latter being used in the linear, potential and exponential application as well. Users can select either ratio or differential methods. The elemental diffraction map is then calculated and presented in a straightforward and easy-to-use way.
Image EELS (Electron Energy Loss-Spectroscopy)
Image EELS is a method for the analysis and imaging of very low element concentrations. This method makes it possible to improve local spectral sensitivity to the detection limit. High-resolution element diffraction maps can be generated quickly and effortlessly with iTEM Solution EFTEM, providing ample information on a sample's chemical composition.
An Image EELS series consists of multiple images of various energy losses. The advantage of this method is that the images and energy losses for generating the element diffraction map (used for subsequent analysis) are defined after the acquisition. iTEM Solution EFTEM's image EELS method makes it easy to define all necessary parameters for recording the energy loss series. Based on these settings, image acquisition is automatic. And just like the ESI method, the integrated EELS Atlas is a convenient assistant when defining these parameters. The user also has all other evaluation methods and aids such as drift correction, for balancing out lateral and energetic shifts, and R value mapping.
When evaluating the images, the user selects the areas of interest, referred to as ROIs or Region of Interest. The areas selected apply to all the images in the series. Intensity is measured within each ROI and entered above the energy loss of the respective image and displayed as an energy loss spectra. These spectra can be more extensively analyzed using a wide range of options. Presentation of results is enhanced by diffractions, mappings and overview images.
Parallel EELS
Parallel EELS (P-EELS) is the simultaneous acquisition of energy loss spectra taken with a CCD camera for rapid element identification. P-EELS is a method for quickly analyzing radiosensitive samples. A corresponding spectrum can be simultaneously captured in a range of multiple 100 eV. The sample range to be investigated can be selected using a screen or a defined illumination spot. With the microscope in spectrum mode, the spectrum is projected onto a CCD camera, the intensity measured and converted into an energy-loss spectrum.
Acquisition, display and evaluation of P-EELS can be automatically controlled with iTEM Solution EFTEM. Spectral acquisition offers both spatial and chronological integration. The software automatically calibrates the rotation during acquisition of the spectrum making it unnecessary to rotate the camera itself.
The spectral functions integrated with iTEM Solution EFTEM offer a wide range of options for filtering, labelling and printing out the P-EELS spectra. These also include functions for more extensive evaluation of the captured spectra. Overlays, comments, labels and spectral data can be added, reference spectra of the element or any other element can be loaded, and the spectrum can be optimized using various filters for noise reduction and background subtraction.
Serial EELS
Serial EELS (or S-EELS) refers to the precise registration of spectra using a combined scintillator/photomultiplier. These spectra have a high dynamic range and are digitized using a digital voltmeter. This method provides excellent results with more challenging investigations: eg, having to acquire edge structures at high energy resolution. The S-EELS method within iTEM Solution EFTEM offers spectral acquisition with a range from 0eV up to 2500 eV and a maximum bit depth of 18 bits. This level of resolution is especially advantageous when evaluating finely structured detail via ELNES and EXELFS. During acquisition, the electron spectrum is directed across the detector opening by gradually changing the high voltage. The intensity is measured by a photomultiplier. iTEM Solution EFTEM controls the entire acquisition process and the subsequent processing, which involves selecting the area to be analyzed, using the same method as parallel EELS. The intensity in the spectrum is recorded sequentially via an electron detector then displayed and evaluated in the image analysis system. The spectrum functions can be used for further processing. Results are presented using diffractions, mappings and overview images.
Spectrum Processing
The processing, evaluation and display of one-dimensional data is done within iTEM Solution EFTEM. All information regarding a spectrum is stored within the corresponding tab. This includes: energy loss, energy window, method used, high voltage, camera, microscope, element, edge and user information. In addition to spectrum display, the user can choose from various filters and functions for preparing and processing spectra. These include line or polynomial fits, Z calibration and normalization functions, derivation filter, as well as the anti-spike filter and drift correction. In addition, overlays, comments, labels and spectral data can be appended to each spectrum. The reference spectrum of any element can be appended to a spectrum as needed.
Quantification
ITEM Solution EFTEM has integrated a wide variety of methods for quantitative evaluation of the spectra. The software can determine the ratio of two elements based on the energy loss spectrum: eg, the ratio of the oxygen K edge (O-K) to the L3 edge of iron. The essential prerequisite being that both the zero-loss peak as well as the ionization edges of the two elements are included in the energy spectrum. Within the framework of this evaluation, the user has numerous background-correction options. The software automatically calculates the ratio value based on other data such as microscope parameters (energy resolution, magnification, acquisition angle or high voltage). The user may also use layer thickness measurement, another quantitative evaluation method.
Required Software
* iTEM Software
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